Jumat, 22 Januari 2010



I.1 Background of Apprenticeship
In the globalization era, technology and science have developed fast throughout the world including economy. Every country in the world through many ways to develop their economic condition particularly type and practice in global trade activity.
An export is a legal trade transporting good or commodity from one country to another country. Export is an important part of international trade. Export goods and services are provided to foreign consumer by domestic producers. Export of commercial quantities of goods normally requires involvement of the customs authorities in both the country of export and the country of import.

Kamis, 21 Januari 2010

Planning Goals and learning outcomes (part 5)

2.2    The Separate Purposes of A Curiculum and A syllabus
The course designers' gull responsibility in that of setting not only broad, general goals but also specifying objectives which are made accessible to all those unvolved with the program. In this discussion will explain two tittles are used : curiculum and syllabus.
1.    A curiculum contains a broad description of general goals by indicating an overall educational-cultural phylosophy which applies across subjects together with a theoretical  orientation to language and language learning with respect to the subject matter at hand. A curiculum is often reflective of natonal trends as well.
2.    a syllabus is a more detailed and operational statement of teaching and learning elements which translates the phylosophy of the curiculum into a series of planed steps leading towards more narrowly defined objectives at each level.

Planning Goals and learning outcomes (part 4)

The Matrials In Use

In surveying the existing material, it is necessary to develope questions as an aid for evaluating them. The questions are:
1.    By whom and where were the materials developed: by a team of materials developers who are familiar with this particular educational system and student populatiuon, or were they produced for the international market which at best is concerned with the broadest possible definition of the target population?
2.    Are the material compatible with the syllabus? The procedures, techniques, and prsentation of items must be in harmony with the specifications given in the syllabus.
3.    Do most of the materials provide alternatives for teachers and learners? Alternatives may be provided in items of learner-tasks, learning styles, presentation techniques, expected outcomes, etc.

Planning Goals and learning outcomes (part 3)


An objective refers to a statement of specific changes a program seeks to ring about and results from an analysis of the aim into its different components. Objectives generally have the following characteristics:
•    They describe what aim seeks to bring achieve in terms of smaller units of learning.
•    They provide a basis for the organization of teaching activities.
•    They describe learning in terms of observable behavior or performance.
The advantages of describing the aims of course in terms objectives are:
•    They facilitate planning: once objectives have been agreed on, course planning, materials preparation, textbook selection, and relate processes can begin.
•    They provide measurable outcomes and thus provide accountability: given a set of objectives, the success or failure of a program to teach the objectives can be measured.
•    They are prescriptive: they describe how planning should proceed and do away with subjective interpretations and personal opinions.

Planning Goals and learning outcomes (part 2)


    An aim refers to a statement of a general change that program seeks to bring about learners. The purposes of the aim statements are:
•    To provide a clear definition of the purposes of the program.
•    To provide guidelines for teachers, learners and material writers.
•    To help provide a focus for instruction.
•    To describe important   and realizable changes in learning.

Planning Goals and learning outcomes (part 1)

Planning Goals and learning outcomes

The ideology of curriculum

1.    Academic rationalism
This justification for the aims of curriculum stresses the intrinsic value of the subject matter and its role in developing learner’s intellect, humanistic, values, and rationality.     Academic rationalism is sometimes is used to justify the inclusion of certain foreign languages in school curricula, here they are taught not as tool for communication   but as an aspect of social studies.
 Clark(1987,6) points out that in UK academic rationalism is concerned with:
•    The maintenance and the transmission through education of the wisdom and culture of previous generations. This has led to the creation of two-tier system of education-one to accord the    higher cultural tradition of elite, and other to cater the more concrete and lifestyles of the masses.
•     The development for the elite of generalizabel intellectual capacities critical faculties.
•    The Maintenance of stands through an inspectorate and external examination boards controlled by the universities

Rabu, 20 Januari 2010

Guided Questions For Creating A Reading Lesson (part 2)

Guided Questions For Creating A Reading Lesson

•    Definition
A guided outline for writing lesson which is derived from analyzing a particular text. Extensive reading is used to obtain a general understanding of a subject and includes reading longer texts for pleasure, as well as business books. Use extensive reading skills to improve your general knowledge of business procedures. Do not worry if you understand each word.

•    Function
For materials preparer who want to be able to use authentic text for reading instruction. It’s means that reader or young learner can easy and understanding to learn in reading lesson. Students can read more books with enjoy and comfortable.